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Authors: Nicholas Robert

Translated by: Nicholas Robert

 

Table of contents:

  1. Shapes of Simple Molecules
  2. Polarity
  3. Different Types of Chemical Bonding
  4. Planetary Model of the Atom
  5. Electron Configuration 
  6. Physical Properties of Solids and Liquids
  7. Trends of the Periodic Table of Elements 

Shapes of Simple Molecules:

 

We will be updating this section shortly!

 

Polarity:

 

We will be updating this section shortly!

 

Different Types of Chemical Bonding:

 

We will be updating this section shortly!

 

Planetary Model of the Atom:

 

We will be updating this section shortly!

 

Electron Configuration:

 

We will be updating this section shortly!

 

Physical Properties of Solids and Liquids:

 

We will be updating this section shortly!

 

Trends of the Periodic Table of Elements

 

The four major trends of the priodic table are based on: Mass, Size, Ionization, Electronegativity


Mass Trend:

1) As you move across the periodic table from left to right, the atomic number and mass get bigger. This is due to the addition of neutrons and positively charged protons to each element.

 

2) As you move down the periodic table from top to bottom, the atomic number and mass get bigger. Once again this is due to the fact that more protons and neutrons added to the nucleus. Therefore the weight increases.

 

Mass Trend by Offnfopt and modified by Nicholas Robert has "No Known Copyright"

 

Size Trend:

1) As you move across the periodic table from left to right, the atoms get smaller. This is due to the addition of a positively charged proton to each element. In turn, the nucleus is stronger and will attract the negatively charged electrongs with much more force. This will make the atoms smaller.

 

2) As you move down the periodic table from top to bottom, the atoms get bigger. From one period to the next, the valence electrons occupy a shell that's further away from the nucleus. The further the valence electrons are, the harder it is for the nucleus to pull them closer. This is called electron shielding.

 

Size Trend by Offnfopt and modified by Nicholas Robert has "No Known Copyright"

 

Ionization Trend:

The ionization energy represents the amount of energy needed to remove an electron from a neutral atom. 

 

1) As you move across the periodic table from left to right, the energy increases. The further right you go in the period the more the valence shell is filled. Therefore, more energy is required to remove an electron. 

 

2) As you move down the periodic table from top to the bottom, the ionization energy gets lower. Moving down the group brings the valence electrons further from the nucleus. The further the electrons are, the less energy is required to take out an electron.

Ionization Trend by Offnfopt and modified by Nicholas Robert has "No Known Copyright"

 

Electronegativity Trend:

1) As you move across the periodic table from left to right, the electronegativity increases. The more the valence shell fills up, the easier it is to pull an electron into the valence shell than to donate one. 

 

2) As you move down the periodic table from top to bottom, electronegativity decreases. There is a larger distance between the nucleus and the valence shell, and so the nucleus has a weak effect and has a hard time pulling an electron.

 

Electronegativity Trend by Offnfopt and modified by Nicholas Robert has "No Known Copyright"